How Will AuroraFS Help Shape Decentralized Identities in the Web 3.0 Era?

AuroraFS
8 min readDec 10, 2021

The internet never forgets. It’s clearly true that the centralized databases do bring the internet a manipulatable brain. Sometimes it chooses to “forget” things it doesn’t want to remember. When there is too much to be recorded, the brain even breaks down, indiscriminately erasing all memories. Maybe it’s time we got a better brain.

Blockchain, distributed storage and other technologies provide us with a more robust brain to keep track of everything you do in the Web 3.0 world. When everything you do can’t be tampered with, destroyed, forgotten (or cost too much), reputation becomes critical, and credit rating protocols in a Web 3.0 world will be part of the infrastructure.

Web 1.0 is static, Web 2.0 is called a participative social web, and Web 3.0 will be a decentralized web. In the current worldwide web, we contribute to the community, and we don’t get much out of it. However, in the future, it will be a win-win relationship between web users and the community. Web 3.0 breaks away from the traditional business model of focusing on corporate interests and shows us the possibilities of community-centric economies of scale. This spirit of collaboration, and the incentives associated with it, will attract some of today’s most talented and ambitious developers to elaborate more creative work.

AuroraFS is a global file system with viable high-performance peer-to-peer technology and provides authorized access. AuroraFS also has an incentive system built-in so that users can fulfill a variety of transaction needs by implementing web tokens, addressing the lack of a win-win business model in the Web 2.0 era. In a closed source business model, users need to trust enterprise personnel to manage funds and perform services. In open-source projects, users no longer have to trust anyone except smart contacts. In the Web 3.0 era, the ultimate winner of AuroraFS will be the massive web built by everyone.

AuroraFS staking model: Cooperative Testing of Web 3.0

Each user that provides bandwidth to the system is called a node and one physical device can run one or more nodes. Multiple nodes can be run when the performance of a physical device is strong enough and the uplink bandwidth is also large enough. The most important resource in the AuroraFS system is bandwidth. Therefore, it will be rewarded and is implemented by indirectly evaluating the bandwidth through the verifiable traffic.

Due to the low barriers of entry for devices, a corresponding number of token stakings are required for each node. This is in order to prevent a sharp decrease in income for the nodes due to the excessive growth of the systems computing power and ensure the quality of services in the early stage. The staking can be withdrawn without any loss once the node service meets certain conditions.

While the team of Gauss Aurora Lab is working on this, decentralization means there is no absolute control in their hands. Different levels of user participation will also play an important role in governance and scalability. As developers move from the proof-of-work (PoW) mechanism to the more efficient and scalable proof-of-stake(PoS) one, more protocols are likely to be implemented in the proof-of-stake protocols. At AuroraFS, service providers, retail, commercial and institutional users are encouraged to secure their networks by locking AuFS and earning rewards in the form of native tokens.

If decentralized identity is the future of the web, then the contributions that you accumulate in your crypto wallet — the articles you write, the content you curate, or the things you buy — will become very important. They’ll become the carrier signals of who you are online and the basis for your reputation.

But in order to mainstream decentralized identity, we must first establish systems that map people’s relevant off-chain experiences and affiliations on-chain. Then we must build mechanisms to standardize, process, and prioritize the influx of data that will be added on-chain. On the way, we’ll need to solve endemic challenges to decentralized identity, including the lack of context around on-chain records and issues around gaining access to the decentralized web.

How Will AuroraFS Change the Future of Web 3.0?

As this budding ecosystem becomes increasingly multi-chained and multi-layered, it will not only become irrelevant to Bitcoin itself but will also spawn a new realm of commerce far beyond the current Defi space.

1、 Internet of Everything (IoE)

Looking around, there are smart fridges, smart TVs, smart scales, and smart home assistants. All of these things can be connected to the Internet, forming a network of devices called the Internet of Things (IoT). The Internet of Things is one of the most notable features of Web 3.0, with the goal of connecting everything to the Internet. Currently, we don’t have such infrastructure to connect all devices, but this can be implemented soon with the development of 5G.

2、User-centric

Web 3.0 blockchain application stack is designed to be more user-centric. It focuses on being the ultimate peer-to-peer network where you could be freer, and knowledge will not be controlled by any entity. As there will be no centralized servers, all the data will be spread among the devices, and people will access them without any supervision.

The semantic metadata will help the users to connect easily. Web 3 IT stack is all about the users. People now are creating more content than ever. Personal blogs and vlogs are extremely popular. People don’t have to rely on media and corporate content producers. They are now simply following others. Thus, it creates a more humanized world, and the internet will be more user-centric.

3、Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) will focus on providing users with better analytics and results. In fact, the tech giants are already working on their own AI projects. For example, you will notice suggestions from YouTube for other country rock or melodic rock songs in the time when you are listening to country-rock music. The AI is simply trying to identify your taste and suggest the best option that you may like.

Moreover, you would notice Facebook ads being changed soon after you are searching for a particular product on Google. Everything is interconnected. So, rather than using mass-marketing techniques, the future marketing strategy will be person-based.

4. The Semantic Web

Blockchain technology stack brings forward the topic called the semantic web. The semantic web simply means the method of understanding web content like human behavior. It is connected with machine learning and artificial intelligence. The semantic web basically tries to teach the computer to understand data and how it behaves.

While Web 2.0 depends on keywords, page authority, and domain authority to rank the content, the Web3 browser tries to understand web content like a human.

5. 3D Graphics and Future of Contents

There is no doubt that web content is now more graphical, with users preferring to watch and share videos and images rather than plain text. Recently, augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) will be common things. Different applications and games will have more realistic graphics and feel. In addition, 3D printing is not limited to lab-scale, more realistic and natural-looking graphics are extensively used, which will become more accessible and affordable.

With web 3.0, the commercialization of the Internet may also undergo tremendous changes:

1. Digital Identity. Decentralization of user identity is one of the key parts of Web 3.0, where a user controls his credentials without any external parties. “Login with Google” must become “Login with my own, revokable, identity”. This way of identification and authorization of users is very reliable and functional in the new era of decentralized Web, public blockchains and smart contracts.

2. Data Right Confirmation. In the conception of Web 3.0, user data is stored in a distributed database and controlled by themselves. Any behaviour obtaining user data needs to obtain the user’s own authorization, so as to ensure users’ data right confirmation and value of ownership.

3. Based on digital identity and data right confirmation, data pricing power and value distribution power will return to users’ own hands. In the Internet age, users’ interaction with the Internet is embedded with an implicit transaction — data. When we experience the convenience of online shopping, our data will also be handed over to the merchant along with the final payment. In our time, data is tradable. With blockchain technology, users can discover the hidden value of their data and gain pricing power through token rewards.

Key features of AuroraFS

AuroraFS aims to build a high-performance global peer-to-peer file system with authorization or access control. It integrates various technologies and ideas from existing peer-to-peer systems, such as Kad Network, S-Bucket and Git. It redesigned the algorithm for the deficiency of the existing global file system to achieve the scalability of the existing system functionality and realized the previously unrealized functions.

a. Nodes

The creation and classification of nodes. In the AuroraFS system, there are different nodes: storage nodes, relay nodes, and optical nodes. This information is represented in the node ID. Therefore, a node needs to generate a node ID consistent with its role.

b. Network Layers

A connection scheme between nodes, including node discovery, connection establishment and maintenance. In AuroraFS, a non-optical node can connect hundreds of non-optical nodes and thousands of optical nodes. The number of connections is determined by the configuration of the node’s device resources, including CPU and bandwidth. An optical node can be connected to dozens or hundreds of non-optical nodes.

c. Files

A file is a piece of data that has been sliced to a specified size and assembled, including sliced segments and information. The original file is cut by length, generating hashes for each fragment, and all these hashes form a new data sequence. This data sequence is then cut by length (L) to generate a new hash, and so on until the last hash result is generated, which is called a root hash.

d. Objects

Objects are the combination of information about one or more files. The collection of all data represented by a list, including files and file information, is called an object. The object is also represented by a root hash, called the object CID. In AuroraFS, everything stored on the chain is object CID information, and all access files or folders are traversed from the root hash.

e. Routing Addressing

Finding nodes that can read and distribute data directly or indirectly, depending on the needs of the application. When blocks of data are moved, a lot of cost shifts occur, and these cost shifts are made through receipts. That is, the downstream endpoint receives the upstream data and sends the corresponding receipt to the upstream.

f. Caching and Multi-Point Parallel Reading

Data caching, multi-point parallel reading and real-time bandwidth estimation. The file-reading node sends a file information query request to the storage node recorded on the chain. The purpose of the file information query is to determine which node owns which fragment of the target file from the relay nodes of the requesting node and the target node. File information query is initiated by the file requester. The query object is the ID of the storage node recorded on the chain. Query requests are sent to the target node through the DHT routing table.

g. Authorized Access System

Implement data systems with authorized access through authentication and authorization challenges. AuroraFS’s solution is to encrypt data, store it in distributed storage, transfer keys to each other through another channel, and finally use the keys to decrypt the ciphertext read from the storage system.

Gauss Aurora Lab
Gold Coast, Australia, 2021

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AuroraFS

AuroraFS is a blockchain-based, high-performance global peer-to-peer file system with authorised access control.